Understanding the Procedure of Bone Marrow Transplant

Bone Marrow Transplant

Blood-forming cells (blood stem cells) are immature cells that develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They are present in bone marrow, the soft substance inside your bones. As they become mature, they leave the marrow and enter the circulation. A blood or marrow transplant (BMT) is a procedure that replaces unhealthy blood-forming cells with healthy ones.

BMT is not a surgical procedure. However, you will get chemotherapy and maybe radiation to kill the sick cells and marrow before the transplant. Then the doctor delivered healthy cells to you. The surgeon injects the new cells into your circulation using an intravenous (IV) catheter or tube in this procedure. The cells then make their way into your bone marrow. It is quite similar to getting medicine or blood through an IV. Recovery from BMT might take months or years.

What are the various kinds of bone marrow transplants?

Depending on who the donor is, there are various types of bone marrow transplants. لعبه الذئب The most common types of BMTs are: 

  • Autologous BMT: In this procedure, the patient himself or herself is the donor. Stem cells come from the patient via bone marrow harvest or apheresis (the process of collecting peripheral blood stem cells). After intensive treatment, the transplant team froze them and gave them back to the patient. Instead of transplant, doctors call it the term “rescue. كازينو دبي
  • Allogeneic BMT: In this BMT, a genetically matched donor, usually a brother or sister, donates bone marrow via bone marrow harvest or apheresis. However, if a close relative cannot donate, anyone can become a donor with the same genetic type.

The process of a bone marrow transplant is similar to that of a blood transfusion. If you’re undergoing an allogeneic transplant, the transplant team extracts your donor’s bone marrow cells a day or two before your surgery. كيفية لعب كونكر If the transplant uses your own cells, they will be obtained from a stem cell repository.

Ways to Collect Stem Cells

A bone marrow transplant involves the transfer of stem cells from one individual to another. Stem cells come from either the circulating cells in the blood (the peripheral system) or the bone marrow.

Peripheral blood stem cells.

It needs several sessions to collect sufficient stem cells to enable effective engraftment in the recipient. The doctor uses apheresis to extract peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). In this procedure, the doctor injects a needle into the donor’s arm veins and attaches it to a particular cell separation equipment. Blood is drawn from one vein and pumped through the machine, which extracts the stem cells before returning the remaining blood and plasma to the donor via another needle put into the opposite arm.

A medication that stimulates the bone marrow to promote the creation of new stem cells may be given to the donor for about a week before apheresis. These new stem cells come from the bone marrow into the circulating or peripheral bloodstream, collected during apheresis.


Harvesting bone marrow entails inserting a needle into the soft interior of the bone, known as the marrow, to retrieve stem cells. Most bone marrow harvesting sites are in the hip bones and the sternum. The procedure happens in the operating room. The donor will be sedated during the harvest and not feel the needle. 

An autologous bone marrow transplant occurs when the donor is the patient himself or herself. If an autologous transplant is planned, previously collected stem cells, either peripheral (apheresis) or harvest, are counted, screened, and prepared for infusion.

Understanding the Procedure of Bone Marrow Transplant

Preparation for a bone marrow transplant varies based on the kind of transplant, the condition, and your tolerance for particular medications. Take into account the following:

  • High doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation are essential in the preparations. This assertive treatment is necessary to cure cancer and provide a place in the bone marrow for new cells to proliferate. Doctors call this therapy ablative or myeloablative because of the impact on the bone marrow. The bone marrow is responsible for most of the blood cells production in our bodies. Ablative treatment prevents cell formation, and the marrow becomes depleted. Moreover, the marrow should be empty in order to let the new stem cells proliferate and form a new blood cell manufacturing pathway.
  • Placing the marrow into the bone is not a surgical operation but similar to blood transfusion. Following the chemotherapy and/or radiation, the surgeon infuses the marrow transplant into the bloodstream via a central venous catheter. The stem cells enter the bone marrow and begin to reproduce and form new, healthy blood cells.
  • After the transplant, the patient gets supportive care to prevent and cure infections, treatment side effects, and problems. This involves doing periodic blood tests, closely monitoring vital signs, measuring fluid input and output, weighing patients daily, and providing a safe and clean environment.

Recovery period

The days leading up to the transplant are considered minus days. The day of the transplant is day zero. Plus, days are noted for engraftment and recovery after the transplant. Days +1, +2, and so on will be added. Each day before, during, and after transplant has its own set of events, difficulties, and hazards. The days help the patient and family understand where they stand in terms of risks and discharge preparation.

As with any treatment, bone marrow transplant patients’ prognosis and long-term survival might vary substantially. Following a bone marrow transplant cost in India, the patient needs ongoing follow-up treatment. New approaches to improving therapy and reducing difficulties and adverse effects of a bone marrow transplant are constantly developing.

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